Quantifying Power Flow Processes Mediated by Spin Currents
The power flow process mediated by spin current in the bilayer device consisting of ferromagnetic metal (FM) and nonmagnetic metal (NM) layers is examined by realizing experimental evaluations for each process from the microwave absorption to electromotive force (EMF) output. The absorption power by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of the thin FM layer during the EMF output is directly measured in operando using an antenna probe system. The transfer efficiency of the absorption power into the NM layer by spin pumping is estimated from strict linewidth evaluation of EMF spectra. The maximum transfer efficiency of the spin pumping power to the external load via the inverse spin Hall effect is determined to be 4.2 × 10–8 under 162 mW microwave irradiation using an analysis model assuming a parallel circuit. The main factors reducing the efficiency are found to be low resistivity of the NM layer and the interface loss. These quantifications are important as a first step to consider the efficient transfer of spin energy mediated by spin currents.