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Documentation in support of your JEOL product.

Comprehensive 2D GC coupled with JEOL GC-HRTOFMS: GCxGC Applications

Diesel Fuel Analysis by GCxGC/EI (Hydrocarbon Classification); Biomarker Analysis by GCxGC/PI (Target Analysis using 2D EICC); Type Analysis by GCxGC/FI (Hydrocarbon Type Analysis); Synthetic Polymer Analysis by Pryolysis GCxGC/EI and FI (Unknown Compounds Analysis in Nylon 66); Additives Analysis by Pyrolysis GCxGC/EI and FI (Targeted Additives Analysis in Nitrile Butadiene Rubber); Natural Polymer Analysis by Pyrolysis GCxGC/EI and PI (Powerful Separation of the Main Components in a Japanese Lacquer Film); Soluble Organic Fraction Analysis by GCxGC/EI (Analysis of PAHs in Exhaust Gas); Electronic Waste Analysis by GCxGC/EI and Negative CI (Halogenated Compounds Analysis); Aroma Oil (Fragrance) Analysis by GCxGC/EI and FI (Molecular ion detection for Alcohol compounds); Sebum Analysis by GCxGC/EI (Pharmaceutical application)

GC-TOFMS Application: Natural Polymer Analysis by using Pyrolysis-GCxGC-MS - "Urushi" analysis with GCxGC/EI and GCxGC/PI

A Japanese lacquer film called "Urushi" is a natural polymer that has been used as a paint and adhesive for living-wares and craft-wares for approximately 8,000 years. "Urushi" has a complex structure that researchers are trying to understand using pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (Py/GC/MS) system. Recently, we developed a new gas chromatograph/high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/HR-TOFMS) system that can be used for comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) measurements. Additionally, we have developed a unique combination electron ionization/photoionization (EI/PI) ion source that can be used with this GC/HR-TOFMS system. In this work, we measured "Urushi" samples using this unique Py/GCxGC/HR-TOFMS system in combination with our new combination EI/PI ion source.

Qualitative Analysis by Comprehensive 2D GC / TOFMS[2]: Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in kerosene

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a kind of continuous heart-cut GC system. Two different types of columns are connected via a modulator in the same GC oven. By using the two columns together, this technique provides very high separation capabilities when compared to one- dimensional GC analysis. However, GC×GC systems require a fast data acquisition detection system in order to record the very narrow time width peaks observed in the GC chromatograms. The JEOL AccuTOF-GC is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) that fully meets this high speed data acquisition requirement at 25Hz (0.04sec) so it can be successfully used as the detection system in combination with GC×GC. In this work, the AccuTOF-GC was used for the qualitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in kerosene by GC×GC -TOFMS.

Qualitative Analysis by Comprehensive 2D GC / TOFMS[1]: Comparison of kerosene and diesel oil

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a kind of continuous heart-cut GC system. Two different types of columns are connected via a modulator in the same GC oven. By using the two columns together, this technique provides very high separation capabilities when compared to one-dimensional GC analysis. However, GC×GC systems require a fast data acquisition detection system in order to record the very narrow time width peaks observed in the GC chromatograms. The JEOL AccuTOF-GC is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) that fully meets this high speed data acquisition requirement at 25Hz (0.04sec) so it can be successfully used as the detection system in combination with GC×GC. In this work, the AccuTOF-GC was used to analyze kerosene and diesel oil samples by GC×GC -TOFMS.

Identification and distribution analysis of additives in a molded NBR by PY/GCxGC/HRTOFMS

The characteristics of polymeric materials vary depending on the additives. Consequently, a variety of additives can be added into the raw polymer resin in order to achieve the required characteristics for the product. PY/GC/MS is often used as an analytical method for the analysis of polymeric materials. However, PY/GC/MS is often insufficient for the chromatographic separation of additives and thermal decomposition products from the polymer. As a result, it is often difficult to assign compound identities. On the other hand, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/HRTOFMS) is a well-known technique that provides high chromatographic separation by using two different polarity GC columns. Additionally, when this technique is used with high resolution mass measurements, it can be a powerful tool for estimating elemental compositions of analytes found within a complex mixture. In this application note, the additives were identified within a commercially available molded polymer by using pyrolysis (PY)/GCxGC/HRTOFMS.

High-speed 50 Hz Data AcquisitionCapability for Comprehensive 2-dimensional GC Measurements

The comprehensive 2-dimensional GC (GC x GC) technique provides higher-separation capabilities for complex mixtures than the typical 1-dimensional GC measurements. However, the GC x GC technique requires high speed data acquisition, e. g. > 20 Hz, for the GC detectors due to the shorter 2nd GC column which elutes samples within just a few seconds (comparable to those used for the ultra-fast GC measurements). Recently, JEOL has developed a new generation GC-HRTOFMS system called the “AccuTOF GCv 4G”. The AccuTOF GCv 4G has high sensitivity, high resolution, high mass accuracy and high speed data acquisition, all simultaneously. In fact, this instrument can measure data using up to a 50 Hz data acquisition speed which is more than sufficient to do not only fast GC measurements but also GC x GC measurements.

GCxGC-EI and GCxGC-FI Measurements Using the EI-FI Combination Ion Source

Comprehensive 2-dimensional GC (GC x GC) provides higher-separation capabilities for complex mixtures than the typical 1-dimensional GC measurements. However, this technique requires high speed data acquisition, e. g. > 20 Hz, for the GC detectors due to the shorter 2nd GC column (comparable to those used for the ultra-fast GC measurements) which elutes samples within just a few seconds. Recently, JEOL has developed a new generation GC-HRTOFMS system called the “AccuTOF GCv 4G”. The AccuTOF GCv 4G has high sensitivity, high resolution, high mass accuracy and high speed data acquisition, all simultaneously. Also JEOL has developed a unique EI/FI combination ion source for this system which provides the capabilities of GC/EI and GC/FI measurements without having to break vacuum in order to switch between each ionization mode. Additionally, this combination is particularly powerful in that it provides library searchable fragmentation information by using EI and high mass accuracy molecular ion information by using FI.

GCxGC TOFMS Analysis of Base Oils with CI, PI, FI

Structural elucidation of hydrocarbon classes in petroleum products are always in high demand. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) with electron ionization (EI) is a powerful method for characterizing complex mixtures such as base oils. However, EI data can often lack a strong molecular ion signal. Therefore, it is necessary to measure samples with soft-ionization methods such as positive chemical ionization (PCI), field ionization (FI), or photo-ionization (PI) for the detection of molecular ions. Each technique is a little different so it is important to understand the characteristics of each soft ionization method. In this application note, we compare the mass spectra of a base oil analyzed by GCxGC-TOFMS with EI, PCI, FI, and PI.

Diesel Fuel Classification Analysis Using GC x GC/FI and Kendrick Mass Defect Plots

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the analysis of complex mixtures. In this work, we analyzed a diesel fuel sample by using GC x GC in combination with a new high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-TOFMS) . Field ionization (FI) produced molecular ions for all components and exact mass measurements were used to obtain elemental compositions. A traditional Kendrick Mass Defect (KMD) plot was used to identify hydrocarbon groups in the diesel fuel sample.

Component Identification of Mineral Oil Hydrocarbons and Additives in Cardboard Packaging using GCxGC–HRTOF–MS with EI and PI

Migration of mineral oil from packaging into food has become a health concern, especially since mineral oil affects the liver and lymph nodes. There are two types of mineral oil: mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). Both types are generally measured using online coupled liquid chromatography–gas chromatography–flame ionization detection 2only to separate and detect target fractions, and it may miss other important, unexpected compounds. By contrast, two-dimensional gas chromatography–high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC–HRTOF–MS) is a comprehensive technique for analyzing complex samples. Using EI with this method allows for NIST database searches. Moreover, using a combination of high-resolution molecular-ion information generated via soft-ionization techniques with an EI NIST database search can result in more-reliable assignments. In this study, we used GCxGC–HRTOFMS with EI and photoionization (PI) soft-ionization techniques to identify compounds in cardboard.

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February 22, 2020
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