Scanning Electron Microscope A to Z: Basic Knowledge for using the SEM
Since the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was first commercialized about 40 years ago, the SEM has shown a remarkable progress. Now, many types of SEMs are being used, and their performance and functions are greatly different from each other. To utilize these different SEMs, it is essential to recognize their features, as well as to understand the reasons for the contrast of SEM images. Thus, this document material is aimed at helping SEM users and future SEM users to understand the basics of the SEM, including the instrument principles, specimen preparation and elemental analysis.