Azoxystrobin amine: A novel azoxystrobin degradation product from Bacillus licheniformis strain TAB7
- Degradation of (E)-azoxystrobin (AZ) by Bacillus licheniformis TAB7 was analyzed.
- AZ was transformed into novel metabolite identified as (E)-azoxystrobin amine.
- (E)-AZ and (E)-azoxystrobin amine are isomerized as part of TAB7 metabolism.
- Inhibition for mitochondrial electron transfer was weakened by TAB7 metabolism.
- Future soil microcosm experiments with TAB7 will clarify the fate of AZ in nature.
Azoxystrobin (AZ) is a broad-spectrum synthetic fungicide widely used in agriculture globally. However, there are concerns about its fate and effects in the environment. It is reportedly transformed into azoxystrobin acid as a major metabolite by environmental microorganisms. Bacillus licheniformis strain TAB7 is used as a compost deodorant in commercial compost and has been found to degrade some phenolic and agrochemicals compounds. In this article, we report its ability to degrade azoxystrobin by novel degradation pathway. Biotransformation analysis followed by identification by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (MS), high-resolution MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identified methyl (E)-3-amino-2-(2-((6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yl)oxy)phenyl)acrylate, or (E)-azoxystrobin amine in short, and (Z) isomers of AZ and azoxystrobin amine as the metabolites of (E)-AZ by TAB7. Bioassay testing using Magnaporthe oryzae showed that although 40 μg/mL of (E)-AZ inhibited 59.5 ± 3.5% of the electron transfer activity between mitochondrial Complexes I and III in M. oryzae, the same concentration of (E)-azoxystrobin amine inhibited only 36.7 ± 15.1% of the activity, and a concentration of 80 μg/mL was needed for an inhibition rate of 56.8 ± 7.4%, suggesting that (E)-azoxystrobin amine is less toxic than the parent compound. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying azoxystrobin amine as a less-toxic metabolite from bacterial AZ degradation and reporting on the enzymatic isomerization of (E)-AZ to (Z)-AZ, to some extent, by TAB7. Although the fate of AZ in the soil microcosm supplemented with TAB7 will be needed, our findings broaden our knowledge of possible AZ biotransformation products.