Today, the scanning electron microscope (hereinafter abbreviated to SEM) is utilized not only in medical science and biology, but also in diverse fields such as materials development, metallic materials, ceramics, and semiconductors. This instrument is getting easier to use with the progress of electronics and introduction of new techniques. Anybody can now take micrographs after short-time training in its operational procedure. However, when one has begun to use the instrument, he cannot always take satisfactory photos. When the photo is not sharp enough, or when necessary information cannot be obtained, it is necessary to think what causes it.
To help make a correct judgment in such a case, the first edition of "A Guide to Scanning Microscope Observation" was published and it has since been used by many people. Today, when several years have passed since the publication of the first edition, some parts of the edition need amendment with instrumental improvements. This is the reason why we bring this revised edition to you.
We included in this book as many application examples as possible so that they can be used as criteria for judging what causes unsatisfactory image factors (hereinafter referred to as image disturbances). Although this edition does not describe all about image disturbances, it carries application photos to allow you to consider their causes. It is also important to correctly select the optimum observation conditions for various specimens. For instance, this book carries matters which are considered to be useful for using the instrument, such as the accelerating voltage, probe current and working distance (hereinafter abbreviated to WD).
We shall be pleased if this publication is of help to people who are now using or going to use SEMS.