Analytical Instrument Documents

The conversion of CO2 into functional materials under ambient conditions is a major challenge to realize a carbon-neutral society. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have been extensively studied as designable porous materials. Despite the fact that CO2 is an attractive renewable resource, the synthesis of MOFs from CO2 remains unexplored. Chemical inertness of CO2 has hampered its conversion into typical MOF linkers such as carboxylates without high energy reactants and/or harsh conditions. Here, we present a one-pot conversion of CO2 into highly porous crystalline MOFs at ambient temperature and pressure. Cubic [Zn4O(piperazine dicarbamate)3] is synthesized via in situ formation of bridging dicarbamate linkers from piperazines and CO2 and shows high surface areas (∼2366 m2 g–1) and CO2 contents (>30 wt %). Whereas the dicarbamate linkers are thermodynamically unstable by themselves and readily release CO2, the formation of an extended coordination network in the MOF lattices stabilizes the linker enough to demonstrate stable permanent porosity.

Structural analysis by NMR can provide not only a planar molecular structure but also three-dimensional structural information. In this Note, we describe a method for obtaining information on dihedral angles by using 1H-1H coupling constants (JHH values). For example, hydrogen atoms attached to a cyclohexane ring are either located in axial or equatorial positions in respect to the cyclohexane ring (Fig. 1). The dihedral angles between vicinal protons are known to be ∠Hax-C-C-Hax ≈ 180°, ∠Hax-C-Heq ≈ 60°, and ∠Heq-C-C-Heq ≈ 60°. If we look at the Karplus curve shown in Fig. 2, we can see that 3JHH of around 4 Hz can be expected in the case of the dihedral angle of 60°, while 3JHH of around 13 Hz corresponds to the dihedral angle of 180°. In reality, 3JHH values depend on substituents attached to the cyclohexane ring in substituted cyclohexanes, so the analysis is not straightforward, but the basic trend of having a larger J-value for a 180° dihedral angle compared to a 60° dihedral angle remains unchanged. Therefore, from the value of 3JHH of the methylene protons, it is possible to differentiate between the dihedral angle of 60° or 180°.

The new generation diffusion probe is specially designed for diffusion applications that requires a large magnetic field gradient. By improving the design around the coil, the recovery time after field gradient pulse has been significantly shortened compared to the conventional model. Using a newly developed 50A bipolar magnetic field gradient power supply, a magnetic field gradient of 20 T/m (2000 G/cm) can be applied, making it possible to measure diffusion coefficients on the order of 10-14 m2/s. This system is ideal for measuring the diffusion of ions in solid electrolytes.

Catalyzed light olefin oligomerization is widely used in petrochemical industries to produce fuels and chemicals. Light olefins such as propene and butenes are commonly selected as feedstocks. Solid phosphoric acid (SPA) and zeolite are representative acidic catalysts. Both the feedstocks and catalysts have an impact on the product composition. In this study, state-of-the-art instrumentation two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled photoionization─time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to investigate the composition of dodecene products produced from olefin oligomerization. Information such as the olefin congener distribution, dodecene structural subgroup distribution, and individual dodecene isomers was obtained and utilized in the statistical analyses. By using specific data sets of the product composition, the distinguishment between SPA and zeolite catalysts as well as among the feedstocks was achieved by applying the unsupervised screening approaches (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis). The potential indicators of catalysts and feedstocks were selected by the feature selection methods (univariate analysis: analysis of variance and multivariate analysis: partial least squares-discriminant analysis).

Modification of the recently reported 19F-detected 1,1-ADEQUATE experiment that incorporates dual-optimization to selectively invert a wide range of 1JCC correlations in a 1,n-ADEQUATE experiment is reported. Parameters for the dual-optimization segment of the pulse sequence were modified to accommodate the increased size of 1JCC homonuclear coupling constants of poly- and perfluorinated molecules relative to protonated molecules to allow broadband inversion of the 1JCC correlations. The observation and utility of isotope shifts are reported for the first time for 1,1- and 1,n-ADEQUATE correlations.

Solid-state NMR is a useful tool to elucidate protein structures. Although fully 13C and 15N labelled samples are required, solid-state NMR provides complementary or unique information that is not accessible by other typical methods. For example, there are, in principle, no upper or lower limits to molecular weight in solid-state NMR, unlike solution NMR and cryo EM. In addition, solid-state NMR is a very sensitive probe of local dynamics. One of the stumbling block of solid-state NMR is sample amount. Indeed, 20 – 50 mg of fully labelled (expensive!) samples are required for 3.2 mm / 4 mm MAS rotors. However, the recent developments allowing MAS rates above 70 kHz change the situation completely. [1] Indeed, the 0.75 mm (1 mm) MAS rotors used for fast MAS experiments (up to 120 (80) kHz) only require 290 (800) nL of sample, enabling solid-state NMR measurements on sub-milligram amounts of sample. Another great advantage of fast MAS is the averaging out of most of the anisotropic interactions, allowing the use of low power schemes (decoupling, recoupling, cross-polarization etc.), which in turns avoids sample heating. High resolution 1H spectra become readily available in these conditions, especially for microcrystalline proteins. This is the biggest advantage of fast MAS, since 1H detection dramatically improves sensitivity compared to traditional 13C detection. As a consequence, fast MAS solid-state NMR is now a versatile tool to study the structure and dynamics of biomolecules, for which the first step is sequence-specific resonance assignment. To this end, requisite experiments for sequential backbone and sidechain assignments are well established. [2] Here, we introduce the tool box available for the Delta software together with examples on fully protonated Het-s (226-280) protein.

A method for the synthesis of metal-doped aromatic macrocycles has been developed. The method, i.e., metal-templated oligomeric macrocyclization via coupling, adopts Ni as the template and assembles five pyridine units via a Ni-mediated coupling reaction to form aryl–aryl linkages. A pentameric oligopyridyl macrocycle was selectively obtained in good yield, and the reaction was also applicable to a gram-scale synthesis. The pentameric oligopyridyl macrocycle captured d8-Ni(II) at the center to form a paramagnetic pentagonal-bipyramidal complex. The method was applied to the synthesis of a large π-molecule to afford a nanometer-sized, bowl-shaped molecule having a unique combination of 120π and 8d electrons.

As polymer materials have become more complex and diverse, the details of their chemical composition have become more critical for the end users. This knowledge allows manufacturers and users to understand the effects of incorporating these polymer materials into their products. Additionally, it is critical to also have tools that can quickly compare two-samples to each other like conventional materials versus alternative materials, new products versus old products, and good products versus defective products.

Axial chirality was induced by circularly polarized light to covalent organic frameworks as well as hyperbranched polymers composed of bezene-1,3,5-triyl core units and oligo(benzene-1,4-diyl) as linker units where variation in induction efficiency was rationally interpreted in terms of internal rotation dynamics studied through CPMAS 13C NMR experiments including CODEX measurements.

Three-dimensional electron diffraction crystallography (microED) can solve structures of sub-micrometer crystals, which are too small for single crystal X-ray crystallography. However, R factors for the microED-based structures are generally high because of dynamic scattering. That means R factor may not be reliable provided that kinetic analysis is used. Consequently, there remains ambiguity to locate hydrogens and to assign nuclei with close atomic numbers, like carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Herein, we employed microED and ssNMR dipolar-based experiments together with spin dynamics numerical simulations. The NMR dipolar-based experiments were 1H-14N phase-modulated rotational-echo saturation-pulse double-resonance (PM-S-RESPDOR) and 1H-1H selective recoupling of proton (SERP) experiments. The former examined the dephasing effect of a specific 1H resonance under multiple 1H-14N dipolar couplings. The latter examined the selective polarization transfer between a 1H-1H pair. The structure was solved by microED and then validated by evaluating the agreement between experimental and calculated dipolar-based NMR results. As the measurements were performed on 1H and 14N, the method can be employed for natural abundance samples. Furthermore, the whole validation procedure was conducted at 293 K unlike widely used chemical shift calculation at 0 K using the GIPAW method. This combined method was demonstrated on monoclinic l-histidine.

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