Electron Optic Documents


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Documents of interest in support of your JEOL product

Relativity – High Frame Rate Imaging With ANY Camera

The IDES Relativity Electrostatic Subframing System multiplies the frame rate of cameras on JEOL TEMs. Microscopes equipped with Relativity achieve exceptional time resolution, data throughput, and advanced automation capabilities. Addition of Relativity allows current JEOL TEM users to forego expensive camera upgrades to their existing systems, instead relying on installation of an electrostatic optics assembly in a wide-angle camera port. These optics rapidly deflect the image data to different regions (subframes) of the camera in a programmable sequence. Each camera readout contains a tiled array of crisp, blur-free subframes. Raw data is automatically analyzed to give a stack of open format images that are loaded back into the camera control software for viewing or further analysis.

Resolution in SEM with Nanopix

The first commercially available SEM was introduced over 50 years ago and to this day there is still no internationally accepted standard procedure for determining the resolution in an SEM image. To add to the confusion, each SEM manufacturer relies on their own sample and methods for determining resolution. Defining the edge of a particle manually is also always subjective in nature; values will differ from one person to the next based on how that person interprets or ‘sees’ the edge of a particle.

Scanning Electron Microscope A to Z: Basic Knowledge for using the SEM

Since the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was first commercialized about 40 years ago, the SEM has shown a remarkable progress. Now, many types of SEMs are being used, and their performance and functions are greatly different from each other. To utilize these different SEMs, it is essential to recognize their features, as well as to understand the reasons for the contrast of SEM images. Thus, this document material is aimed at helping SEM users and future SEM users to understand the basics of the SEM, including the instrument principles, specimen preparation and elemental analysis.

SEM - 3D Surface Reconstruction

SEM is an indispensable tool for studying the microstructure of a wide variety of materials. The images generated are inherently a 2 dimensional representation of the sample surface. Unlocking the 3rd dimension by reconstructing a 3D model from multiple SEM images can enhance our understanding of complex microstructure. This 3D view is often more intuitive and surface metrology characteristics can be calculated.


JEOL is always making efforts to meet the needs of our customers in all areas including hardware and software of our instruments. Our efforts to grasp customer requirements include question and answer opportunities during technical seminars and meetings. Based on these questions, we have published this Q&A book.

Some Thoughts on Why You Want to Use Low kV Imaging

What makes the difference between a good SEM image and a stellar one? Imaging samples at the appropriate conditions, and that often means at very low accelerating voltage (low kV). It's time to give it a try! Every modern day scanning electron microscope (SEM) from the top of the line, ultra-high resolution field emission SEMs to the most economical entry level bench-top tungsten (W) thermionic SEMs have the capability of imaging samples at very low accelerating voltage (Low kV ). Low kV imaging has many benefits and this easily accessible function should not be overlooked.


STEM-in-SEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy in an SEM) has become a popular technique for biologists, polymer scientists and materials scientists for its ease of use, cost effectiveness and high resolution. It is especially suited to investigating the internal structure of thin film (100-200nm) samples as well as size and shape of submicron to nanometer particles. With standard SEM imaging modes on bulk samples, there are limitations in the ultimate resolution that can be achieved due in part by the beam-sample interactions. With STEM-in-SEM, the sample is very thin and the interaction volume is small. Therefore, the resolution more closely approximates the diameter of the electron beam at the exit surface of the sample allowing for high resolution; using STEM with our state of the art FE SEMs, sub-nanometer resolution is easily achieved.

Other Resources

The following resources are available concerning Electron Optic related instruments:

  • Image Gallery
    -View a selection of electron images
  • FAQs
    -See answers from questions often asked about our SEM and Surface Analysis instruments
  • Links & Resources
    -View our page of useful and interesting links to various electron microscopy resources
  • Videos
    -View some product presentations of our instruments
  • SEM Theory and SEM Training

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  • Technical Documentation for JEOL EPMA (Microprobes)